Kenya 2012


Gallery will follow soon

Giant Groundsels of the Aberdares:

Dendrosenecio battiscombei

Dendrosenecio brassiciformis

Dendrosenecio keniodendron




Giant Lobelias of the Aberdares:

Lobelia aberdarica

Lobelia bambuseti

Lobelia giberroa

Lobelia gregoriana ssp. sattimae (L. deckenii ssp. sattimae)

Lobelia telekii



Aberdare Mountains

The Aberdare (or Nyandarua) mountains are an isolated volcanic range that forms the easternmost wall of the Great Rift Valley, to the east of the high Kinangop/Laikipia plateau. They are around 100 km long from north to south (the northern end almost reaching the equator). There are two main peaks, Ol Donyo Lesatima (3,999 m) to the north and Kinangop (3, 906 m) to the south, separated by a long 'saddle' of land above 3,000 m. The  small peak of Kipipiri (3, 349m) flanks the main range to the west, linked to it by a formerly forested valley at around 2,700 m.

Deep ravines cut through the forested eastern and western slopes and there are many clear streams and waterfalls. The park is renowned for  its torrential waterfalls plunging from cloud-shrouded heights to spray-filled ravines. They include the magnificent Karuru falls, which drop 300m, the impressive Gura falls which torrent from the opposite  side of the same Gorge, the drop of the Chania falls and the enchanting Gura falls which cascade across the yawning mouth of the Queen's Cave. Mist and rain occur throughout much of the year, with precipitation  varying from around 1,000 mm on the drier north-western slopes to as much as 3,000 mm in the south-east. The vegetation varies with altitude. A rich alpine and sub-alpine flora, including species of Senecio spp, Lobelia spp, Erica spp, Helichrysum spp and tussock grasses, gives way at around 3,000 m to bamboo Arundinaria alpine and then montane rainforest (mainly Juniperus procerus-Podocarpusfalcatus-Nuxia congesta forest on the western and northwestern slopes, ocotea forest on the south-east, and mixed Podocarpus latifolius forest on the east and on Kipipiri (Beentje 1990). Pockets of Hagenia forest occur in sheltered patches on the rolling moorland (Ojwang et al. 2006).

The National Park lies mainly above the tree line, with some forest  and scrub at lower altitude in the salient near Nyeri. The Aberdares  Forest Reserve (103,300 ha) occupies the lower slopes, in three main  blocks that almost surround the Park, with Kipipiri Forest Reserve  (5,100 ha) tacked on to the west. The southern boundary of the Aberdares Forest Reserve adjoins the Kikuyu Escarpment Forest. The Aberdares are  an extremely important water catchment for the Tana River system, for the northern Ewaso Nyiro River and for Lake Naivasha, and provide much of the water supply for Nairobi and adjoining districts.

Wildlife in the area

The Aberdares hold 52 of Kenya's 67 Afro tropical Highlands' species The rare species include the Bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros) estimated at over 65 individuals in forest (KWS 2002), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) (some 1,500 are resident:) and Giant Forest Hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and a population of Lions (Panthera leo), the African Golden Cat (Felis aurata), a rare species and Spotted Hyena (Crocuta Crocuta) (KWS 2005). Endemic small mammals include Aberdare Mole-shrew (Surdisorex norae) and Aberdare Mole rat (Tachyoryctes audax). The Montane viper (Vipera hindii) occurs only here and on Mt Kenya, and the Aberdares hold several amphibians that are endemic to the central Kenyan highlands, including Hyperolius montanus, Hyperolius cystocandieans, Rana wittei and Phrynobatrachus kinangopensis. The butterfly (Neptis kikuyuensis) is endemic to forests and on the Kikuyu Escarpment, and Charaxes nandina, endemic to central Kenya, has also been recorded (Larsen 1991).

The Range has six of the eight restricted range species in the Kenyan Mountains Endemic Bird Area. Over 200 species are recorded in all, including African Green Ibis, African Cuckoo Hawk, Mountain Buzzard, Jackson's and Moorland Francolins, Hartlaub's Turaco and Cape Eagle-Owl. The Scarlet-tufted Malachite Sunbird is found on the high peaks,  foraging largely on lobelias, while other montane sunbirds (including Tacazze, Golden-winged, Malachite and Eastern Double-collared) are common at slightly lower altitudes. The restricted-range Aberdare  Cisticola appears to be locally common in tussock moorland. Other  vulnerable bird species found in the forest include Sharpe's Longclaw,  Abbott's Starling, Aberdare Cisticola, Jackson's Francolin, Hunter's  Cisticola, and Striped Flufftail (Bennun & Njoroge 1996).

Notable plants include the Aberdare endemics Lobelia deckenii sattimae and Helichrysum gloria-dei, and the Aberdare/Mt Kenya endemics Lobelia bambuseti, Senecio keniensis, Senecio johnstoniibattiscombei var. battiscombei and Senecio keniodendron. The Aberdares are rich in the genus Alchemilla, including A. hageniae (endemic), A. argyrophylla (also on Mt Kenya), A. cyclophylla (also on Mt Kenya) and the rare A. microbetula (also on Mt. Elgon).


All images © by Dr. Tassilo Seeger, unless otherwise noted


Hagenia abyssinica forest with Lobelia bambuseti


© by Petra Allmendinger